My greatgrandfather Michael Mock (1841-1921) was of pure German ancestry. I have several other pictures of him, one as a smooth-faced newlywed, and others showing him, with beard, in an old-fashioned black hat and clothes. In the latter pictures, he looks very much like an Amish or Mennonite farmer, but he was neither. He was descended from Lutherans who came to America in the mid 18th century from southwest Germany, and from their children who passed through southwest Ohio before arriving as early settlers around Oaklandon, Indiana. His mother's family were Pennsylvania Dutch (that is, German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania), but his father's family came from Georgia and North Carolina.
Though there are many spelling variations, the name Mock (Mauk, Mack, Maag, etc.) is a common one in Germany. There is an excellent group of helpful genealogists organized around the surname(s) that can be reached through the home page of the Mock Family Historian. ( Click here for other Mock family links.)
My progenitor Mock emigrant to America was eighteen-year-old Thomas Mock (or Mackh, 1733-1807), who came around 1750 from Swabia in Wurtemberg, Germany to settle near the Savannah River, in Effingham County, GA. I learned about this Thomas Mock from a short genealogical monograph by Carol and H. A. Scott titled Michael Winecoff: The Early Years in America, which my second cousin Rada Greenlaw found for me in the public library of Mocksville, NC. That Michael Winecoff became Thomas Mock's father-in-law, and may also have been his uncle or cousin by marriage.
According to the Scott monograph, a group of 157 Swabian Wurttembergers, including Michael Winekauf and Thomas Mackh, sailed to America in the late summer of 1751on a British ship named Antelope, and settled 25 miles up the Savannah River. Almost 20 years earlier, a community of other German Lutherans from Salzburg had already settled there in the community of Ebenezer, around the Jerusalem Evangelical Lutheran Church. The Swabians formed the Bethany Colony of Georgia. The British motive in settling German families in Georgia was to create a kind of buffer zone of German settlers between the Spanish-held lands in Florida and the English settlers in Virginia and the Carolinas. Most of the Swabian emigrants came from near the city of Ulm. The Mocks in the group were probably from the nearby town of Langenau.
The group of Swabians was led by William Gerard de Brahms, a military engineer, map maker, surveyor, and convert from Catholicism to Protestantism. As a convert, he faced employment problems with the Catholic government in power in Swabia at that time, and it is thought that is the reason he organized the group of Lutheran emigrants. Michael Winekauf (later Winecoff, but misspelled Winekraft in the earliest record) was one of the seven "elders" of the group of "fifty four men, forty six women, twenty seven boys and thirty girls." On August 12, 1751, the elders met with the Trustees of the Georgia Colony in London seeking to join a group of protestant from Salzburg that had already settled there. The Trustees agreed, and, as was standard practice, promised to give 50 acres of Georgia land to each male in the group over 21. They sailed from London in late August, and arrived in late October. The minister of the Ebenezer Lutheran Church in Georgia was a prominent abolitionist, the Rev. Martin Bolzius, who wrote back to London with his impressions that the Swabian arrivals were "honest, well behaved and industrious," but "mostly poor, having paid away their money for passage and other necessaries of life." De Brahms surveyed land for the new settlers at a place called Blue Bluff, where they all moved in December, 1751. This place was about five miles further up the Savannah River from the previous Salzburger settlers.
Thomas Mock, b August 12, 1733, would have been 18 at the time the settlers came to Savannah. There were at least three other male Mocks in the group -- Bartholomew, Jacob and Wolfgang Mock. All four may have been brothers, and one or more of their sisters may also have been part of the group. The Scott monograph speculates: "The parents of this family seems not to have come with them, and it is possible Michael Winecoff acted as a sort of guardian or mentor to them." The Mocks and Winecoffs engaged in farming, and possibly also silk culture, there for about twenty years. Sons of Michael Winecoff married daughters of these Mocks, and Thomas Mock married Mary Winecoff, a daughter of Michael, who would have been a very young girl in 1751. Then, around 1770, "some from each family moved together to North Carolina ... Mocks still live in Effingham County, but there appear to have been no Winecoffs there after the 1820s ... When this happened is not known now, but was sometime between the marriage of Mary and Thomas in Georgia in April 1765, and the first recorded sale of land in North Carolina to Michael Winecoff in Cabarrus County (NC) by Samuel Suther in 1771." (US Census records show that Michael Winecoff also moved to the same area of North Carolina at about that same time.) The Scott monograph stops with the move to North Carolina leaving for a "later chapter" the "intriguing why" of the move north.
I once supposed the "why" may have been objection to slavery, given the abolitionist sentiments of their minister in Georgia, Rev. Martin Bolzius, but that seems not have been it, since their were negroes in their household in 1800 (see below), and those surely must have been slaves. North Carolina was an American frontier area in the latter half of the 18th century, and up until the opening of the Northwest Territory around the turn of the century. Thomas and Mary (Winecoff) Mock made their homestead in Cabarrus County near her father Michael and her older brother John Michael Winecoff, whose wife Barbara may also have been a Mock. There they raised a family of at least six children -- Thomas (II), Matthias, Michael, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Magdalene (Mary) Mock. In the book Commemorative Biographical Record of Prominent and Representative Men of Indianapolis and Vicinity (J. H. Beers & Co. 1908), Michael Mock's grandaughter Phoebe recalls that Michael had a brother named John Mock, but no other record of this John Mock has turned up. She may have been referring to Michael's brother-in-law John Conder, who married Margaret Mock in NC in 1799.
Ida (Kirkland) Boyce, a descendant of Thomas Mock (II) has done extensive research on the descendants of Michael's brothers Thomas (II) and Matthias. Thomas II fought in the War of 1812, and later moved back to Georgia. Matthias moved to Tennessee and then to Arkansas. Both have many descendants.
Not much else is known of their life of the Thomas Mock family during their North Carolina years, which included the years of the American Revolution. (There is one reference reporting that Thomas Mock of Cabarrus Co., NC, was a private in the Revolutionary army, but this has not been verified.) North Carolina saw a lot of Rev. War action in the early 1780s, so the Mock experiences then would probably be interesting if we knew it. Michael Mock, who was probably named for Michael Winecoff, and for whom my bearded great grandfather Michael Mock was named, was born in Cabarrus County, NC, just before the War, on Oct. 2, 1775.
The 1800 U.S. Census for Cabarrus County has the following entry for the Thomas Mock household, on page #700:
MOCK, Thomas 00301-00101 03
The numbered code indicates three males between ages 16 and 25, one male over 45, 1 female 16 to 25, 1 female over 45, and 3 negros. From this, it appears three sons and one daughter were unmarried in 1800. (Daughter Mary Barbara Mock, b 3/24/1772, had died 11/7/1789 at age 17.) It also appears that the Mock family, in 1800, owned three slaves.
There were other Mocks by this time living in Rowan County, just to the north of Cabarrus County, as shown in the following census entries (# designates page numbers):
MOCK, Jacob # 374 12001-21010-00 MOCK, John # 367 00100-00100-00 MOCK, John # 444 21010-20010-00 MOCK, Philip # 367 31201-12010-09 MOCK, Widow # 375 01000-10001-02
The Jacob Mock in the above may have been the brother of Thomas Mock ,(I) and the John Mock on page 367 may have been the son of Thomas (I), but this is uncertain. The widow may have been of another of the original brother immigrants to Georgia.
The following Mock marriages from around 1800 are recorded for Rowan and Cabarrus Counties:
Cabarrus County Marriages MOCK, Mathias to SHAFFER, Leah 29 Jun 1803 MOCK, Thomas to KERTNER, Margaret 09 Sep 1807 CONTER, John to MACK, Margareth 26 March 1799 Rowan CountyMarriages HOUK, Felix to MOCK, Catharine 13 Jun 1793 MOCK, Jacob to GILL, Euly 12 Nov 1801 MOCK, Jacob to SPAUCH, Sally 17 Nov 1811 MOCK, John to GRAVES, Catheran 04 Oct 1790 MOCK, Michael to BEAVER, Barbara 01 Aug 1804 MOCK, Philip Jr to HOOVER, Christiona 15 Nov 1806
. Thomas Mock (I) died January 5, 1807. In September of that same year, Thomas Mock (II) married Margaret Kertner. An October 1979 letter from Mrs Carol S. Scott to the Librarian of the Davie County Library, Mocksville, NC, implies that Thomas (II) moved to Davies County, NC, and there founded the town of Mocksville, but this appears not to be so. It appears that Mocksville was named for other Mocks, not descended from the Savannah Mock/Weinkauf immigrants, but perhaps related to them through common ancestors in Germany (these connections have not been clearly established, though.
Of the other children of Thomas Mock Sr., I only know something of my ancestor Michael Mock I. According to his grandaughter, Phoebe Mock (sister of my great grandfather Michael Mock II), whose memories are recorded in Commemorative Biographical Record of Prominent and Representative Men of Indianapolis and Vicinity (J. H. Beers & Co. 1908): "He (Michael I) was married Aug. 2, 1804, to Anna Barbara Beaver, born May 15, 1787, and they removed between 1812 and 1815 to Butler County, OH, locating near Hamilton in the early settlement of the county."In the 1810 US Census, Michael Mock I is listed as head of a household in Rowan Co., NC, and brother Thomas Mock II as head of household in neighboring Cabbarus Co.. In the 1820 Census records, Michael Mock is probably the "Michael Mack" listed in Ross Twsp. of Butler County. This would have been just SW of the present city of Hamilton, OH. (The Michael Mock family living in Union Twsp. of nearby Clermont County in 1820 is from a different Mock line). In 1830, though, Census records show the family in St. Clair Twnsp. of Butler County. Anna Barbara (Beaver) Mock died Oct. 30, 1821, probably in Ross Township of Butler County, OH.
The application, dated August 1, 1804, for the marriage of Michael Mock (I) and Anna Barbara Beaver was found, copied and sent to me by my cousin Rada Greenlaw. The application is, more properly, a notice of a bond posted by Michael Mock and Davott Beaver (or Davolt Beaver -- the handwritten signature leaves some doubt) to guarantee that there was no reason to prohibit the marriage. The bond makes it appear that Davolt or Davott Beaver signator is Anna Barbara's father, but he was,instead, her brother-in-law. Her father was Henry Beaver (b 1752) whose daughter Betsey married Davolt Beaver a few years earlier. The Mock-Beaver marriage was in Rowan County, NC, which neighbors Cabarrus County on the north.
More on Anna Barbara's Beaver ancestors can be found in accompanying web pages.
Phoebe Mock's recollections in Commemorative Biographical Record continue with the biography of her grandfather Michael Mock I: "His children were: Elizabeth, born 5/25/1805; Thomas (III), 12/13/1806; Mary, 3/30/1808; Henry, 5/9/1810; Simeon, 12/1/1812, all in NC; Alexander, 6/15/1815; Nancy, 3/27/1818; and John, 6/1/1820. The latter three were born in Butler County, OH. All these came to Indiana, except Thomas, who died 2/3/1807 in NC." Michael Mock I never remarried, Elizabeth would have been 16 at the time her mother died, so maybe she did the woman's work in the household before the family's move to Oaklandon, IN. We can infer from the above that the family of Michael I moved from NC to OH sometime after 1807 (probably between 1812 and 1815), and census records (below), show they were in Ohio by 1820.
In the 1830 Census, the Michael Mock family appears in St. Clair Township of Butler County. The males in 1830 were: 1, 5-9; 1, 10-14; 2, 15-19; 1, 50-59. The females in 1830 were: 1, 10-14; 1, 20-29. St. Clair Twsp. is SE of Oxford and northeast of Hamilton in Butler County. It appears that between 1820 and 1830 Michael moved his family from Ross Twsp of Butler Co., OH, to Ripley Co., IN, then back to St. Clair Twsp, Butler Co., OH (see below).
A short biography of John Mock in The History of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana (p 844) says: "John Mock was born June 1, 1820 in Butler County, Ohio. At the age of three years (i.e. in 1823) he went with his father to Ripley County, Indiana; lived there for three years and returned to Ohio; remained there until 1831, in which year he came to this township (Lawrence Twsp., Marion Co.) with his father (Michael Mock I)." My guess is that the death of Anna Barbara somehow precipitated the move to Indiana, and that the move back to Ohio was to join Beaver relatives or other friends in Butler County who could help care for or educate the young children of the family. (Bonnie Andrews has reported that Michael Mock lived near his brother, John, during the three years in Ripley Co., IN. Again, this may have been the brother-in-law John Conder who was named as an heir in the will of Thomas Mock II.)
The Phoebe Mock piece in Commemorative Biographical Record, etc. goes on to say: "Mr. Mock (Michael I) removed to near Germantown, Lawrence Township, Marion County, Indiana, where in 1832 or 1833 (in his late 50s) he entered land, taking up 80 acres for himself and giving each son $200 that they might enter 40 acres each. His daughters received a like amount. He built a hewed log house, one mile south of Germantown, which is still standing (i.e. in 1908), and there died in October, 1843, in the faith of the Lutheran church." Germantown, IN, was a small community on the south side of Fall Creek on the eastern border of Marion County. Michael Mock is buried in the Bills Cemetery, which is on a hill overlooking old Germantown, which is now flooded by Geist Reservoir; his sandstone slab gravestone was intact, leaning against a tree in 1989, but, according to my Uncle Samuel C. Mock, disappeared sometime before 1994.
The history of the other ancestors of my great grandfather Michael Mock II can be traced to Berks County, PA, before the Revolutionary War. Families with the German surnames of Schaeffer (variations of Shafer, Sheffer), Kraemer, Apple (or Oppel or Opfel) and Pickle (or Bickel) moved there in the several decades around 1750, probably for the same reasons as the Mocks and Winecoffs moved to Georgia -- because they wanted to escape religious discrimination in Germany, and because they wanted farmland. Pennsylvania was founded as a haven for the religiously persecuted, and the English colonialists around Philadelphia were happy to grant free land to make a buffer of German farmers between themselves and their enemies to the west -- the French and the Indians.
The following Apple and Pickle households appear in the 1790 Pennsylvania census for Berks County on the indicated pages:
APPLE, Anderw HEIDELBERG TWP # 035 APPLE, Andrew # 035 03 03 04 00 00 APPLE, Hanry # 038 02 01 05 00 00 APPLE, Henry PINEGROVE TWP # 038 APPLE, John # 038 01 03 05 00 00 APPLE, John PINEGROVE TWP # 038 PICKLE, Anthony # 034 01 03 03 00 00 PICKLE, Anthony HEIDELBERG TWP # 034 PICKLE, Tobias Sr. HEIDELBERG TWP # 034 PICKLE, Tobias, jun # 034 02 03 05 00 00 PICKLE, Tobias, sen # 034 01 00 01 00 00
Heidelberg Township is directly west of Reading, PA. I'm not sure how to decipher the 6 two-digit number code in these census records; it has something to do with the number of males and females of different ages, and it appears there are two digits per number; it may be, too, that only the males in the household were counted.
The Shaffer name was very common in Pennsylvania at that time. The Michael Mock II ancestor, Nicholas Shaffer, apparently lived near Nazareth, Northampton County, where the 1790 Pennsylvania system merely lists him and a possible relative as follows:
SHAFER, Frederick NAZARETH TWP # 177 SHAFER, Nicholas NAZARETH TWP # 177
Andrew Apple, Nicholas Schaeffer, Tobias Pickle, and probably many of their friends and neighbors, too, were veterans of the Revolutionary War who moved to the Centre County, PA, in the early 1790s, near the small modern communities of Madisonberg and Rebersburg. There they settled and cleared farms in the long, relatively isolated Brush Valley between Brush Mountain, on the south, and Nittany Mountain on the north. The Brush Valley name presumably referred to the brush that covered the valley before it was settled. The Col. Miles who had obtained the original grant of the valley, broke it up into farms in a lease-to-buy arrangement: One preserved purchase contract specified that the buyer was supposed to clear and plant the farm, plant orchards on it, build and maintain a road through the property, and pay in installments over a period of eight years. It may be that some buyers were able to pay for the land directly.
Brush Mountain separated Brush Valley from Penn's Valley, a similar community founded by the sons of William Penn. Brush Valley, about ten miles long and from one to two miles wide, is still good farmland. On p. 351of History of Centre County, PA, it says of it: "The first settlers were Pennsylvania Germans ... others must have been few in number and their stays short." Judging from the language of the church records, Brush Valley community was a German-speaking community, so it was probably only later, in southern Ohio, where the families began to speak English. On page 396 of the same reference, the following entries are selected from records of births & baptisms in Brush Valley, with the caveat that "Some of the names occur often in the old records, but they are inserted here only once, and with the date of their first appearance." The husband's name is first, then the wife's:
1792 Phillip Shinkle Julianna 1794 John Apple Catherine Andrew Apple Catherine Henry Apple Catherine Thomas Pickle Barbara Nicholas Schaeffer Julianna 1795 Stephen Bolander Margaret 1798 John Pickle Catherine 1799 Simon Pickle Catherine 1800 John Pickle Eva 1802 William Apple Catherine Jacob Kreamer Magdalena John A. Schaeffer Elizabeth 1803 Christian Pickle Magdalena John Pickle Maria 1804 John Pickle Suzanna Andrew Pickle Catherine Jacob Pickle Maria Magdalena Tobias Pickle Catherine John Schaeffer Eva
On page 224 of the same History, there is a biography of Captain John Adam Schaeffer, which says: "(Capt. Schaeffer) immigrated into Centre County in 1801... During the campaign of Trenton and Princeton, 1776-77, Capt. Benjamin Weiser was in command of a company of Associators under Col. James Potter, of which John Adam Schaeffer was second lieutenant ... Nicholas Schaeffer, Peter Hosterman, Tobias Pickle, and perhaps others who afterwards moved to Centre County, were privates in this company ... Nicholas and John Adam were brothers ..." The biography of Nicholas Schaeffer on the same page says: "(Nicholas) was one of the pioneer settlers, and may have come into (Brush Valley) as early as 1791 ... He owned what is now the Feidler farm, and it is related that on his arrival his household goods were unloaded under the spreading branches of a large oak , which afforded early shelter ... he purchased from Col. Miles. Mr. Schaeffer was born in Berks County in 1750; he died in 1825, aged 75. He had been twice married. There were 14 children, --- John Nicholas, Adam, George, Jacob, Juliana, Catherine, Eva, Rebecca, Susan, Mary, Sarah, Rachel, and Nancy."
In 1901 the Clermont Sun published short biographies of many Revolutionary veterans that had lived in Clermont County, OH. Among them was following short biography of Andrew Apple, which was reproduced in A. M. Witt's Clermont County Ohio Revolutionary War Veterans: "Andrew Apple was two years in the Pennsylvania Infantry Line, and came to the Territory of the Northwest in 1797, settling a little later near Olive Branch on a tract of 2,100 acres. He was an ancestor of the Clermont Apple family and died in 1817. He raised 11 children and gave each 150 acres ... The descendants of the Revolutionary Apple have intermarried with scores upon scores of old Clermont families." A biography of one of his many descendants, Rev. John W. Applewas published in Commemorative Biographical Record, etc. and includes the following additional information: "The family was founded in Centre County Pennsylvnia, and the named was pronounced Opple, and sometimes spelled Apple. In early days the Pennsylvania progenitor (i.e. Andrew) removed to Clermont County, OH, about 16 miles above Cincinnati, and there cleared a large farm on which he lived for many years ..." Andrew Apple's wife is not mentioned much in these biographies; she was Catherine (Kreamer) Apple, presumably from Berks County, PA. The Kreamer name is another common Pennsylvania Dutch surname, and Kreamers also were part of the Brush Valley community.Andrew Apple's estate, in the probate records of Clermont County dated Feb. 13, 1817, was divided among the following people, each of whom received $58.56: John Apple, Henry Apple, Andrew A. Apple, John B. Buckel, Stofel S. Apple, Peter Bolander, William W. Apple, Sally Troy, Peter Emery and Daniel Apple. These all appear to be sons and daughters of Andrew Apple, or husbands of his daughters.
Other Revolutionary War veterans were pioneer settlers in Brush Valley Pennsylvania. Notable among them were Stephen Bolander and Jacob Shinkle. Bolander's wife was the sister of Jacob Shinkle, and the two families settled on the land that is the present site of the small town of Rebersburg, PA, later (about 1800) moving together to the southwestern corner of Brown County, OH. Stephen Bolander's son Peter Bolander married Andrew Apple's daughter in Brush Valley, and moved with the Andrew Apple family to Clermont County. Other sons and daughters of Andrew probably came at the same time. At about that same time, Stephen Bolander and Jacob Shinkle each obtained similar large tracts of land in the part of Clermont County that later broke off to became Brown County. Another Bolander son, Christian, was the first husband of Casper Stoner's (my great-great grandfather's) wife Sariah Yates. Quite a large number of Bolanders, Shinkles, Pickles and Apples intermarried with McCords, Stoners, Days and others from Clermont and Brown counties, both there and later in the area around Oaklandon and McCordsville, Indiana.
One of the children of Andrew Apple that eventually came to Indiana was Christopher Apple, Sr.. His wife, whom he probably married in Brush Valley, was Juliana Schaeffer, daughter of ] Nicholas Schaeffer. His story is told in the Commemorative Biographical Record: "Three of (Andrew's) sons, John, Christopher and William, removed from Ohio to Marion County, Ind., in huge Conestoga wagons, and all settled with their families in Lawrence Township, entering heavily wooded land ... Christopher settled on a farm adjoining where the Mock farm is now located." (This farm would have been about where Indian Creek crosses the Pendleton Pike, State Road 67, on the west side of Oaklandon, IN.) "Here Christopher Apple entered 240 acres in the woods, and built for his home, a round log cabin. Later, he erected one of of hewed logs, which is still standing (in 1908), and here he lived until removing to the village of Oaklandon ... He married Julia Ann Shafer, who died on the farm Oct. 19, 1852. To them were born these children: Andrew S. , born 12/15/1795 in Centre County, PA; Christopher jr., 4/28/1807; John; Peter; Mary; Sarah; Elizabeth Mary, born in 1799 (the latter married George Pickle, Sr., and died 11/20/1861, aged 62 yrs., 9 months, 2 days); Catherine born 1813; Susan; Martha; Daniel, born in 1819."
The George Pickle Sr. who married Elizabeth Mary Apple must have been born in Brush Valley, and then moved to Clermont County with his parents. I haven't found any record of their marriage in Clermont County, but not all marriages in Clermont County at that time were recorded. I suspect George was probably the grandson of Rev. War soldier Tobias Pickle, but this isn't certain. He may have been the son of the various Pickles mentioned earlier in the church records of Brush Valley, or of the Thomas Pickle, who is mentioned in the History of Centre County, Pa: "John Schall came to Brush Valley in 1807. He bought what is now the Schall place from Thomas Pickle. There was a distillery on the farm at the time, also a school house." (In 1803 there were 8 distilleries in 10-miles-long Brush Valley).
In any case, George and Elizabeth Mary Pickle came to Indiana either with or to join her brothers. They were the grandparents of Michael Mock II. The Phoebe Mock recollection printed in Commemorative Biographical Record says: "... Mary Pickle, born Oct. 27, 1818, in Clermont County, Ohio, daughter of George and Polly (Apple) Pickle, both of Brush Valley, PA." George Pickle died in a tree-felling accident soon after the family moved to Indiana, his daughter Mary Pickle (1818-1893) married Alexander Mock (1815-1901), son of Michael Mock I, and the widow Pickle remarried. My great grandfather Michael Mock II was the son of Alexander Mock and Mary Pickle.
Ron Stoner December 1995 Revised August 1999